The Fauna of the Park
The Fauna of the “Bory Tucholskie” National Park has in total 194 species of vertebrates – namely 38 species of mammals, 113 species of birds, 5 species of reptiles, 10 species of amphibians and 28 species of fish – as well as 1310 species invertebrates [Andrzejewski, Chudzicka and Skibińska 2002, updated].
Among mammals there are four species of insectivores, 9 species of bats, 2 species of lagomorphs, 10 species of rodents, 10 species of predators 3 species of artiodactyls. Fifteen species of the above mentioned are covered by a strict protection, and five species of the above mentioned are covered by partial protection. Apart from popular species, such as the roe deer, the wild boar or the deer, there are also rare species such as, among others, the Eurasian pigmy shrew, the pond bat, the otter, the polecat and from time to time one may encounter also the wolf.
Inventories and observations of birds encountered on the area of the “Bory Tuchlskie” National Park“ revealed the number of 113 breeding and passage species, out of which 98 species are under a strict protection and, 6 species are under a partial protection. At least 25 occurring here species are considered to be of significant importance on the scale of the country and the region. Breeding species include: the common teal, the garganey, the golden-eye, the white-tailed eagle, the marsh harrier, the sparrow hawk, the Eurasian hobby, the whooper swan, the crane, the horsefly, the lapwing, the snipe, the woodcock, the stock pigeon, the eagle-owl, the Tengmalm’s owl, the nightjar, the black woodpecker, the great spotted woodpecker, the hoopoe, and the goldcrest and passage species include: the nutcracker, the black stork, the greylag goose and the wigeon. The Ostrowite, Płęsno and Skrzynka Lakes offer convenient conditions for numerous species to fledglings, resting and breeding in the period of spring and autumn migrations. Particularly during autumn migrations of cranes their considerable concentrations are reported (up to 2 300 specimens) on the Ostrowite Lake. This staging area is one of the biggest in Poland. Other places important for avifauna of the Park refer to two areas of old anti-fire strips. Such open areas between tree stands create a very attractive environment, preferred in particular by the nightjar and numerous species of cavity nesting birds (woodpeckers and tits).
On the area of the “Bory Tucholskie” National Park there are in total 5 species of reptiles and 10 species of amphibians. The most common reptiles occurring in the Park include the slow-worm and the sand lizard. Within the recent years (2009-2012), the occurrence of two more amphibians not appearing so far has been reported – the great crested newt and the tee frog, on the other hand, the occurrence of the fire-bellied toad has not been confirmed. In the waters of the Park there are 28 species of fish reported, including species covered by a strict protection such spined loachs and bitterlings. A very interesting group of fish refers to so called coregonids living in clear and cold lakes. They include whitefish and gwyniads.The knowledge about invertebrates of the Park is rather scarce. Although the occurrence of 741 species has been reported in the Park with ¼ of them of significance from fauna and protection perspectives, as 147 species of them are rare, endangered and protected species, and 58 species have been for the first time reported in the Pomeranian Lakeland region. The group is, however, still little explored which is confirmed by the fact that in 2010 during the inventory of spiders on the area of the Park, a new species in Poland was reported [Kupryjanowicz 2010]. In 2011, during the research for a master thesis, 21 new species of Chironomidae were reported including two new species in Poland [Jażdżewska 2011]. With regard to rich populations of invertebrates occurring on xerothermic grasslands and heathlands one may conclude mainly on the basis of bees as only about this group we have a relatively good well knowledge. In spite of the fact that the above mentioned environments cover a slight area of the Park, over 63% of bee species reported in the “Bory Tucholskie” National Park come from them. Environmental values of the Park are confirmed also by the occurrence of dragonfly phytocenoses. The more valuable ones include: the pygmy damselfly or the northern emerald. The Park enjoys almost a full set of thyrphobiont and thyrphophil species that is strictly related to the peat-bog environment, which confirms a considerable level of naturalness of those habitats. According to the status as of 2011 it is stated that the number invertebrate species amount to 1310 [on the basis of observations and researching of individual groups].